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5 How To Calculate Predetermined Overhead Rate?

## How To Calculate Predetermined Overhead Rate?

Predetermined overhead rate is a rate that is allocated to the job or any product orders based on estimated manufacturing overhead cost for a particular period in the initial stage of any project. Thus, a predetermined overhead rate refers to the estimation of the cost which will incur for the production of specific job order or product. It is calculated at the beginning each period by subtracting the estimated manufacturing overhead cost from an allocation base . As is apparent from both calculations, using different basis will give different results.

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## Concerns Surrounding Predetermined Overhead Rates

The assignment of overhead costs to jobs based on a predetermined overhead rate. There are likely to be variations in the overhead incurred because of the seasonal nature of some overhead costs, change in the volume of production and efficiency of factory for different periods. If actual overhead costs from individual month is used, the overhead cost per unit will vary because of seasonal costs. Where actual costs are used to calculate selling prices, difficulties arise because the product cost fluctuates from period to period and there is a considerable delay in product cost determination. As you have learned, the overhead needs to be allocated to the manufactured product in a systematic and rational manner.

• The most common allocation bases are direct labor hours and direct labor dollars.
• At the end of the year, the difference between applied and actual costs is being eliminated.
• If these estimates are not accurate, they can end up causing a lot of problems for the business specially if decisions are based on the rates, such as pricing decisions.
• Businesses use this rate to help with closing their books more quickly since it allows them to avoid compiling actual overhead costs as part of their closing process.
• The material and labor costs are easy to predict as these can be calculated using estimated usage of material and labor per product multiplied with the expected rate of usage per unit of the product.
• At the beginning of year 2021, the company estimated that its total manufacturing overhead cost would be \$268,000 and the total direct labor cost would be 40,000 hours.

These positions include factory supervisors, factory maintenance workers and factory cleaning crews, to name a few. Job 31 has a direct materials cost of \$390 and a total manufacturing cost of \$1,260. Overhead is applied to jobs at a rate of 200 percent of direct labor cost. Total of direct material or direct labour will give you manufacturing cost. Therefore, you would multiply that rate with direct labour since the company uses direct labour cost as allocation base. The predetermined overhead rate is used to price new products and to calculate variances in overhead costs. Variances can be calculated for actual versus budgeted or forecasted results.

This allocation process depends on the use of a cost driver, which drives the production activity’s cost. Examples can include labor hours incurred, labor costs paid, amounts of materials used in production, units produced, or any other activity that has a cause-and-effect relationship with incurred costs. The allocation of overhead to the cost of the product is also recognized in a systematic and rational manner.

• Businesses need to calculate a predetermined overhead rate to estimate the total manufacturing costs that are borne on the production of a single unit of a product.
• The overhead rate of cutting department is based on machine hours and that of finishing department on direct labor cost.
• Manufacturing overhead costs can also include the salaries of some manufacturing employees.
• Using the formula, you divide the total overhead cost (\$553,000) by the activity base (\$316,000), we get an allocation rate of 1.75 (175%).
• Therefore, you would multiply that rate with direct labour since the company uses direct labour cost as allocation base.
• The overhead is then applied to the cost of the product from the manufacturing overhead account.

At the end of the year, the difference between applied and actual costs is being eliminated. Now https://www.bookstime.com/ ABC Co. can compare its estimated results with actual results to evaluate how it has performed.

## Relationship Between Total Factory Overhead & Changes In Direct Labor Hours

All the seasonal overhead costs are merged together and spread over the production for the entire year. Figure 8.41shows the monthly manufacturing actual overhead recorded by Dinosaur Vinyl. As explained previously, the overhead is allocated to the individual jobs at the predetermined overhead rate of \$2.50 per direct labor dollar when the jobs are complete. Last fiscal year, the total overhead cost was \$553,000 and direct materials cost was \$316,000. Using the formula, you divide the total overhead cost (\$553,000) by the activity base (\$316,000), we get an allocation rate of 1.75 (175%). In this case, these numbers are not estimated because they are historical figures. The predetermined overhead rate formula is calculated by dividing the total estimated overhead costs for the period by the estimated activity base.

She uses the average manufacturing overhead cost over the last three months to calculate this figure. The amount of accounting labor required to use multiple overhead rates can increase, however.

## Computing The Predetermined Overhead Rate

For example,Figure 8.41shows the monthly costs, the annual actual cost, and the estimated overhead for Dinosaur Vinyl for the year. While the total amounts are close to each other, they are not exact. Cost accountants want to be able to estimate and allocate overhead costs like rent, utilities, and property taxes to the production processes that use these expensesindirectly.

If overhead is underestimated, then the company may set their prices too low and not earn profits or experience a loss. A manufacturer producing a variety of products that require different processes will have multiple overhead rates known as departmental overhead rates instead of just one plant-wide overhead rate. Therefore, the predetermined overhead rate of TYC Ltd for the upcoming year is expected to be \$320 per hour. Hence, this predetermined overhead rate of 66.47 shall be applied to the pricing of the new product VXM. Now take a total of overhead cost and then divide the same by allocation base determined in step 3.

## Selecting An Allocation Base

If Chan’s production process is highly mechanized, overhead costs are likely driven by machine use. Thus there is a link between machine hours and overhead costs, and using machine hours as an allocation base is preferable. Another advantage of a predetermined overhead rate is that it can be used to plan for the cost of future projects. If a company wants to use the actual overhead rate to calculate the cost of a project, it is unable to do so until after the project has been completed and true costs are known. Estimating the cost relative to the activity base allows managers to budget for future projects.

Prior to the start of the accounting year, JKL Corp calculates the predetermined annual overhead rate to be used in the new year. JKL’s profit plan for the new year includes \$1,200,000 as the budgeted amount of manufacturing overhead. JKL allocates the manufacturing overhead based on the normal and expected number of production machine hours which are 20,000 for the new year. Therefore, the JKL’s predetermined manufacturing overhead rate for the new year will be \$60 (\$1,200,000/20,000) per production machine hour. The predetermined overhead rate is based on anticipation and certain historical data.

The predetermined overhead rate is calculated by simply dividing the estimated overhead expense by the estimated activity base. Thus, the predetermined overhead rate is \$12.5 per machinery hour. Therefore, the applied costs allocated are different from the actual overhead cost incurred during the production process.

## What Is The Cost Of Unburdened Labor?

Last but not least, we normally use a rate per unit to calculate the predetermined overhead rate when all units are identical. The first step is to estimate total overheads to be incurred by the business.

## Management Accounting

H) June council rates and property taxes on the factory were paid in cash \$2,370. The Predetermined Overhead Rate invoices for these costs were received, but only half of the bill was paid in June.